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Snapcraft 指南 (Ubuntu 软件中心 & 更多)

本指南提供了有关如何包装你的 Electron 应用程序的任何 Snapcraft 环境, 包括 Ubuntu 软件中心的信息。

背景和要求

与更广泛的 Linux 社区一起, 规范旨在解决 snapcraft 项目中的许多常见的软件安装问题。 Snaps 是容器化的软件包, 包括所需的依赖项、自动更新和对所有主要 Linux 发行版的工作, 而无需进行系统修改。

创建 .snap 文件有三种方法:

1) 使用 electron-forgeelectron-builder, 与 snap 支持的两个工具都不在该框中。 这是最简单的选择。 2) 使用 electron-installer-snap, 它采用 electron-packager 的输出。 3) 使用已经创建的 .deb 包。

在所有情况下, 都需要安装 snapcraft 工具。我们建议在 Ubuntu 16.04 (或当前的) 上建立。

snap install snapcraft --classic

虽然 可以 在使用自制程序的 macOS 上安装 snapcraft , 但它无法生成 snap 包, 并且集中于管理存储中的包。

使用 electron-installer-snap

该模块的工作原理与 electron-winstaller 类似 因为它的范围仅限于构建捕捉包。 你可以这样安装:

npm install --save-dev electron-installer-snap

步骤 1: 打包你的 Electron 应用程序

打包应用程序使用 electron-packager (或类似工具)。 Make sure to remove node_modules that you don't need in your final application, since any module you don't actually need will increase your application's size.

结构输出应该看起来大致像这样:

.
└── dist
    └── app-linux-x64
        ├── LICENSE
        ├── LICENSES.chromium.html
        ├── content_shell.pak
        ├── app
        ├── icudtl.dat
        ├── libgcrypt.so.11
        ├── libnode.so
        ├── locales
        ├── natives_blob.bin
        ├── resources
        ├── v8_context_snapshot.bin
        └── version

步骤 2: 运行 electron-installer-snap

From a terminal that has snapcraft in its PATH, run electron-installer-snap with the only required parameter --src, which is the location of your packaged Electron application created in the first step.

npx electron-installer-snap --src=out/myappname-linux-x64

If you have an existing build pipeline, you can use electron-installer-snap programmatically. For more information, see the Snapcraft API docs.

const snap = require('electron-installer-snap')

snap(options)
  .then(snapPath => console.log(`Created snap at ${snapPath}!`))

使用一个现有的 Debian 包

Snapcraft is capable of taking an existing .deb file and turning it into a .snap file. The creation of a snap is configured using a snapcraft.yaml file that describes the sources, dependencies, description, and other core building blocks.

步骤 1: 创建一个 Debian 包

If you do not already have a .deb package, using electron-installer-snap might be an easier path to create snap packages. However, multiple solutions for creating Debian packages exist, including electron-forge, electron-builder or electron-installer-debian.

步骤 2: 创建一个 snapcraft.yaml

For more information on the available configuration options, see the documentation on the snapcraft syntax. Let's look at an example:

name: myApp
version: '2.0.0'
summary: A little description for the app.
description: |
 You know what? This app is amazing! It does all the things
 for you. Some say it keeps you young, maybe even happy.

grade: stable
confinement: classic

parts:
  slack:
    plugin: dump
    source: my-deb.deb
    source-type: deb
    after:

      - desktop-gtk3
    stage-packages:
      - libasound2
      - libgconf2-4
      - libnotify4
      - libnspr4
      - libnss3
      - libpcre3
      - libpulse0
      - libxss1
      - libxtst6
  electron-launch:
    plugin: dump
    source: files/
    prepare: |
      chmod +x bin/electron-launch

apps:
  myApp:
    command: bin/electron-launch $SNAP/usr/lib/myApp/myApp
    desktop: usr/share/applications/myApp.desktop
    # Correct the TMPDIR path for Chromium Framework/Electron to ensure
    # libappindicator has readable resources.
    environment:
      TMPDIR: $XDG_RUNTIME_DIR

As you can see, the snapcraft.yaml instructs the system to launch a file called electron-launch. In this example, it passes information on to the app's binary:

#!/bin/sh

exec "$@" --executed-from="$(pwd)" --pid=$$ > /dev/null 2>&1 &

Alternatively, if you're building your snap with strict confinement, you can use the desktop-launch command:

apps:
  myApp:
    # Correct the TMPDIR path for Chromium Framework/Electron to ensure
    # libappindicator has readable resources.
    command: env TMPDIR=$XDG_RUNTIME_DIR PATH=/usr/local/bin:${PATH} ${SNAP}/bin/desktop-launch $SNAP/myApp/desktop
    desktop: usr/share/applications/desktop.desktop


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